ISSN: 1994-4721

Volume 27, Issue 1994

Volume 27, Issue 1994, Autumn 2018, Page 1-198


The geographical distribution of the population in the province of Basra and its influence in Iraq's political strength

Assis. Dr. Hussein Qasem Mhammed AlYasiri

Basra studies journal, Volume 27, Issue 1994, Pages 1-38

This study deals with the geographical distribution of the population of Basrah governorate and the impact of this distribution on the weakness and strength of the state by studying the relative and intensive distribution and population concentration, as well as the environment, to reveal the concentration and spread of the population and the internal and external security and political problems. Or population interaction with the population of neighboring countries. The results of the study showed that there is a concentration of population in small areas. Nearly half of the population is concentrated in the center of Basrah. Most of the population resides in urban areas, reflecting the low regional development of other regions.Plans and programs for balanced development and the building of new cities will contribute to better redistribution, thus achieving security stability within the province and increasing the effectiveness of the population in the power of the state.

The Future Visions for Housing Prjects in Governorate of Basrah

Prof. Dr. Raad Yassin Mohamed; Researcher. Ayat Abdul-Wahab Khreibesh

Basra studies journal, Volume 27, Issue 1994, Pages 37-74

The housing projects are considered as one of the necessary and important services in the city , as they are part of the framework of urban development , the increased in social development made housing project patterns in constant development . Basrah province has witnessed many housing projects during the past and present years , and most of these housing projects of various types have a link to state institutions and its government departments while the investment size was very little , if not non-existent , but after the perion of political and economic change that had witnessed by the country , and idea of proliferation of housing projects in and out of the city of Basrah had been revived , whether it is Govermental or investment projects , this is what will be addressed by the research in its Subsequent pages .The research includes the two main axes :
1-Discuss the current housing projects that had been carried out since period of the fifties up to 2003.
2-The second axis also discussed all housing projects for the post-2003 as well as planned until 2033 .

Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali and his role on letters of Holy Quran

Lect. Abbas Jassim Naser

Basra studies journal, Volume 27, Issue 1994, Pages 75-90

Historians did not spicify the year of birth Abul-Aaswad Aduali However, they suggest that he was born before sixteenth years migration in Yemen, Assume AL-Basrah and township After Abdullah Abbas – In time of the succession of Imam Ali (Aleh Alselam).
The words of the book, historians agreed unanimously that Abu al Aswad al Duali that is the Grammor Scierce and taking the plague died in Basrah years 69H, In the succession of Abdull malk-bin Marwan has eight-Five years of age. The reason whyhe was invited to the points of the Quran points of expression is that Arab Muslims they were read the Koran written in relying on Conservation and novel, the non-Arab Muslims, they were Face difficulties in the reading of the Holy Quran, Especially after expanding the Islamic state, the large number of new entrants in Islam. It was the tune in a clear reading of the tongnes. Wat is colled Abu-al Aswad this work under the guiduance of the Imam of the Faithful (Aleh Alselam).
The points in the Arabic writingwas in two parts.
First: points to express: Ascore of characters distinguish the movement reiterated the stationing points in agiven position it letter instead of viprio. «Shadda and kasra» and that the first in this role was Abu al Aswad AL Duali.
Second: AL-Iajam point: the dots on the letters to
appear similar characters like «B, T, th, E» some Form of some.
And this role – the points of the Holy Quran points of Iajam – learner Abu Al – Aswad AL – Duali Yahya bin Yaamor Al – Adwani, as was said Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Nasr bin Asim.

Wastewater Features and its impact upon Vital Environment in BASRA

Prof. Dr. Bashir R. Yassin; Lect. Dr. Ayman K. Abbas

Basra studies journal, Volume 27, Issue 1994, Pages 91-124

Wastewater consists of all types of water produced by various human activities, whether at the domestic, commercial or industrial level. This type of water has various names such as sewage, drainage or sludge. The main source of these types of wastewater comes from home drain. It consists of 99.9% water and 1.0% solids, some of them are dissolved and some others are suspended, some are organic, others are not organic. The organic matters occupy 70% out the solids present in the wastewater.
The problem is that Basra province does not possess well constructed drain pipes especially in the rural areas, and most of the wastewater is drained into the rivers and streams.
The current study hypothesizes that the wastewater features in Basra drained into the environment have negative effects on the vital environment.
This work aims at recognizing the features of the wastewater and its drainage in Basra and its effects upon the water and agricultural media as well as the resulting diseases. The main results of this study are:
1. People in Basra, numbering 2894591 in 2016, are suffering from the problem of drainage which is not well treated, especially in the rural areas.
2. There is only one managing wastewater station in Basra which is in Hamdan district with 236000 M3 day drawing energy serving only 50% of Basra total population. The treated water runs from this station through earthy channel with a length of 8.5 Km. flowing into Shatt-al-Arab after the wastewater passes with stages of primary and secondary deposition with no sterilization, and thus carrying contaminations and bacteria that cause different diseases.
3. Discharging this type of water into Shatt-al-Arab affects the vital environment especially fish and floating plants, and this changes the qualitative characteristics of the water because of the increasing concentration of the contaminants above the required measurements.
4. The study shows an increase in the total dissolved salts in the treated drainage water in Hamdan Station up to 6404 Mg/L. in January 2016 and up to 3682 Mg/L. in June 2016 and the environmental limit is 1500 Mg/L.

Denotatin of Colors in Ancient Arabic Poetry

Lect. Dr.Khaid Saqban Hassen

Basra studies journal, Volume 27, Issue 1994, Pages 125-152

The study deals with study and analysis the use of colors in poetry the old ( pre-islamic poetry is a model). The study came the semantics that are treated with it the potes in their employment of colors . the color carries symbolic and aesthetic connotations that express the themes of life. We tried to monitor the feelings of the old Arab poet of the colors and psychological implications and the extent of the impact of traditions and cultural heritage in the poets understanding of the these indications that understanding was reflected in their poetry that we put tge hand on modals of them enough to illustrate the image that the poets saw to colors .

The Siege of the Tribe of Ka'ab for the City of Basra1762

Assis. Prof. Dr.Jafar Abdul Dayem Al-Mensour; Lect. Kawthar Ghadban Abdul Hassan

Basra studies journal, Volume 27, Issue 1994, Pages 153-166

Due to the strategic location ofBasra at the head of the Arabian Gulf andbecause it is characterized by a commercial activity made a lot of international ,regional and tribal powerplay an effective rolein the region and impose their influence.Among these tribes the tribe of BaniKa'abas it was able to play an active role in the region because it has a strong fleet.It was able to stand up against the Ottoman empire and Safavid state and take over group of island in Shatt al-Arab which the governor failed to deterrent that tribe. That's why the Safavid state tried to eliminate this tribe, but also failed because the Safavid state's lack of ships and the difficulty of the Geographical areawhich aroused the British East India company was fearing for their interests to stand by the Ottoman state which led the countries to agree with each other against BeniKa'abdue to the lack of paying taxes .The tribe of BeniKa'ab remained not subject to anyone and that continued for a long period despite attempts by the British East India company to anumber of times but BeniKa'ab remained resistant and dominated Shatt al Arab.